Abstract Cross-sectional studies integrating motivational stages with expectancy value models have suggested that contemplating smokers perceive more advantages of quitting and social support than precontemplators. Moreover, smokers preparing to quit were found to differ from precontemplators and contemplators by having higher self-efficacy expectations. Using the ASE model, the present study confirmed the findings of these cross-sectional studies. The longitudinal design of this study, however, facilitated prediction of transitions that smokers made during a 10-month follow-up. Smokers who progressed from precontemplation perceived more advantages of quitting than those who remained in precontemplation. Smokers regressed from contemplation perceived fewer advantages of quitting than those who did not regress. Finally, smokers who progressed from preparation had higher self-efficacy expectations than those who did not progress. In sum, the present study provided longitudinal support for the ø-pattern, which suggests tailoring of health educational messages to subjects in the various stages of change.
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