Purpose: To determine the effectiveness of vertebral augmentation in relieving pain, differences in pain relief outcomes based on procedure type were investigated. Variables that potentially influence outcomes were identified. Materials and Methods: A database of 525 cases (740 levels) treated for compression fractures with vertebroplasty, kyphoplasty, or S1-level sacroplasty was compiled. Average age was 75 years ± 12, and 72.4% of patients were female. Variables evaluated included age, sex, fracture etiology, procedure type, vertebral level treated, number of levels treated per procedure, and technical approach. Outcomes were assessed by a binary system of "responders" (ie, patients with improvement/resolution of pain) versus "non-responders" (ie, those with no change/worsening of pain) and with a four-level pain scale (1, pain resolution; 2, pain improvement; 3, no change; 4, worse pain) retrospectively applied from medical records. Univariate and multivariate analyses determined outcomes. Results: Four-hundred and sixty-seven patients (89%) showed a response to treatment: 40% had pain resolution and 49% had pain improvement. Multivariate analysis showed that women and older patients had greater odds of being responders (odds ratios [ORs], 0.56 and 0.98, respectively; P = .016 and P = .048, respectively). Patients without cancer (OR, 1.60; P = .012) and women (OR, 2.05; P = .0002) were more likely to experience pain resolution. Increasing numbers of levels treated per case were associated with decreased odds of pain resolution (OR, 0.69; P = .0081). Sex and number of levels treated were independently predictive of pain scale outcomes (ORs, 2.0 and 0.71, respectively; P = .0003 and P = .015). Conclusions: Vertebral augmentation procedures provide pain relief for a majority of patients regardless of underlying fracture etiology. There was no difference in pain outcomes among procedure types. Age and sex may be predictive of pain outcomes. © 2009 SIR.
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