Titania samples prepared by different non-hydrolytic sol–gel methods, mainly based on the etherolysis and alcoholysis of titanium tetrachloride, have been found to differ in both structure and texture. Thus, the reaction of diethyl ether with TiCl4 at 110 °C affords anatase, which begins to convert into rutile only around 1000 °C. The reaction of TiCl4 with ethanol leads to rutile as early as 110 °C, whereas the reaction of tert-butyl alcohol at 110 °C leads to the singular formation of brookite.
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