Human skilled behavior requires preparatory processes that selectively make sensory and motor systems more efficient for perceiving the upcoming stimulus and performing the correct action. We review the literature concerning these preparatory processes as studied by response-cuing paradigm, and propose a model that accounts for the major findings. According to the Grouping Model, advance or precue information directs a dynamic process of subgroup making-that is, a process of stimulus- and response-set reconfiguration-whereby the internal representation of the task is simplified. The Grouping Model assigns a critical role to the unit of selection, with Gestalt factors and interresponse dependencies mediating the formation and strength of stimulus and response subgroups. In a series of five experiments, we manipulated perceptual and motoric grouping factors, and studied their independent and interactive effects on the pattern of precuing benefits. Generally, the results were consistent with the Grouping Model's account of response-cuing effects. © 2003 Elsevier Science (USA). All rights reserved.
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