Francisella tularensis is a highly infectious gram-negative bacterium with potential for use as a bioweapon. Analysis of the F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) ultrastructure by electron microscopy revealed the presence of long, thin fibers, similar in appearance to type 4 pili. The highly virulent F. tularensis Schu S4 strain was found to contain type 4 pilus genes, and we confirmed that these genes are present and expressed in the LVS.
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