[In press] Who rises to the top? Early indicators

  • Kell H
  • Lubinski D
  • Benbow C
  • 9


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • N/A


    Citations of this article.


Youth identified before age 13 (N = 320) as having profound mathematical or verbal reasoning abilities (top 1 in 10,000) were tracked for nearly three decades. Their awards and creative accomplishments by age 38, in combination with specific details about their occupational responsibilities, illuminate the magnitude of their contribution and professional stature. Many have been entrusted with obligations and resources for making critical decisions about individual and organizational well-being. Their leadership positions in business, health care, law, the professoriate, and STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) suggest that many are outstanding creators of modern culture, constituting a precious human-capital resource. Identifying truly profound human potential, and forecasting differential development within such populations, requires assessing multiple cognitive abilities and using atypical measurement procedures. This study illustrates how ultimate criteria may be aggregated and longitudinally sequenced to validate such measures.

Author-supplied keywords

  • STEM
  • cognitive abilities
  • creativity
  • human capital
  • intelligence
  • profoundly gifted

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in


  • Harrison J. Kell

  • David Lubinski

  • Camilla P. Benbow

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free