Data on loundness comparisons are complemented by additional measurements. Thus, temporal effects in loudness with respect to four parameters can be summarized: (a) phase effects of complex tones and the influence of physiological noise, both in the low‐frequency range, (b) effects of amplitude modulation, (c) frequency modulation, and (d) bandwidth in the high‐frequency range. Additionally, transient masking patterns and the corresponding specific loudness patterns produced by strongly time‐varying sounds are discussed. A model for the loudness development of such sounds is designed and realized electronically as a loudness measuring device. The usefulness of this equipment is demonstrated for measuring loudness of the following six types of sounds that vary both temporally and spectrally: (a) single tone bursts as a function of duration, (b) sinusoidally amplitude modulated tones as a function of repetition rate, (c) bandpass noise with constant rms value as a function of bandwidth within the critical band, (d) strongly frequency modulated tones as a function of modulation frequency, (e) temporally partially masked tone bursts, and (f) continuous speech.
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