Purpose – Different process models have been developed by academia and industry to enhance the effectiveness and efficiency of the design and construction activity in response to the need for improving performance. However, the effective and widespread adoption and use of process models have been limited, and the benefits resulting from these endeavours have been ambiguous at best and non-existent at worst. This paper synthesises the key general and construction-specific literature related to process model implementation around a generic model, providing a systematic picture on the current knowledge on implementation. Design/methodology/approach – Secondary data sources were reviewed, criticised and synthesised. The books and academic papers identified focused on the areas of process management in construction and manufacturing, change management and knowledge/technology transfer. Findings – The paper concludes that the body of literature related to process model implementation lacks an integrated focus and cohesion, and the need to appropriately locate and operate the implementation strategy within a visible organisational context is not adequately addressed. Research limitations/implications – The paper review and synthesis are limited to relevant literature within the context of implementation of process models. Practical implications – Gaps in the literature are identified and discussed, and a set of questions proposed to stipulate future research. Originality/value – The paper originality relates to providing a broad, systemic perspective on the complexity of process models implementation, analysing it from different but interrelated conceptual lenses.
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