Dipeptidyle peptidase (DPP4) is the enzyme which is known to break down two gut hormones glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) known as incretins effect. Beside this DPP4 plays potential role in modulating immune system. It causes proliferation of T cell by binding with adenosine diaminase (ADA) through co-stimulatory mechanism. Within immune system DPP4 exert mainly stimulating effect on T cells, B cells, natural killer cell ,DNA synthesis and release of TGFb. Evidence from experimental studies suggest the potential role of DPP4 in various inflammatory disease and increased risk of cancer .Inhibitor of DPP4 is novel treatment for diabetes mellitus type2 which inhibit DPP4.DPP4 plays crucial role in immune modulation therefore its prolong inhibition results in implication in immune system and increase risk of developing tumor. Therefore these classes of drugs prescribed with a caution. Further studies needed for more clarification.
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