After 20 years of research and application, landscape ecology in China has gained many achievements and established a concrete foundation for further development. The major progress of landscape ecology in China was in the fields of land-use structure and ecological processes, landscape pattern and dynamics analysis, theoretical and methodological development, and landscape ecological applications. Past researches emphasized particularly the theories and applications, while the methodological study accounted for a comparatively small part; urban and suburban landscapes, regional and catchment scale landscapes, cold and arid zone landscapes, forest landscapes, agricultural landscapes and wetland landscapes were the main research subjects. Major problems with past researches include the following. 1) There was unbalanced attention on conceptual/theoretical analysis, monitoring, methodological development and applications. 2) Landscape metrics were widely used, whereas the ecological implications were not fully addressed. 3) The researches on the relationship between landscape pattern and ecological processes and scaling were largely preliminary. 4) The risk, uncertainty and accuracy of the data processing were seldom mentioned. 5) The original methodological innovation was scant. To solve these problems effectively and promote landscape ecology in China to full development at a whole new stage of the twenty-first century, the following four closely interrelated and complementary tasks should be addressed: 1) establishing appropriate strategies for the development of landscape ecology; 2) enhancing experiment-based and long-term research; 3) improving landscape planning, design, conservation and management; 4) initiating and advancing the development of unified landscape ecology with Chinese characteristics.
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