Brain is a delicate organ, isolated from general circulation and characterized by the presence of relatively impermeable endothelial cells with tight junctions, enzymatic activity and the presence of active efflux transporter mechanisms. These formidable obstacles often block drug delivery to the brain across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Although several promising molecules have the potential in the in vitro settings but lack of in vivo response is probably because the molecule cannot reach the brain in a sufficient concentration. Drug delivery across the BBB is a major limitation in the treatment of central nervous system (CNS) disorders and CNS infections. This review deals with the role of nanobiotechnology in CNS drug delivery, in which three categories of carbon nanotubes, nanowires and nanoparticles (NPs) are explained. The small size of the NPs makes them an ideal choice to penetrate the BBB. Several mechanisms are involved in this process and various strategies are used. There are some concerns about the safety of NP entry in the brain that need to be resolved before human use. Although there is no approved nanotechnology-based CNS drug available the future for such neuro-nanobiotechnology based delivery system developments is promising. (copyright) 2009 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
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