Prostaglandin (PG) E(2) exerts its actions by acting on a group of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). There are four GPCRs responding to PGE(2) designated subtypes EP1, EP2, EP3, and EP4 and multiple splicing isoforms of the subtype EP3. The EP subtypes exhibit differences in signal transduction, tissue localization, and regulation of expression. This molecular and biochemical heterogeneity of PGE receptors leads to PGE(2) being the most versatile prostanoid. Studies on knock-out mice deficient in each EP subtype have defined PGE(2) actions mediated by each subtype and identified the role each EP subtype plays in various physiological and pathophysiological responses. Here we review recent advances in PGE receptor research.
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