Protein phosphorylation controls many aspects of cell fate and is often deregulated in pathological conditions. Several recent findings have provided an intriguing insight into the spatial regulation of protein phosphorylation across different subcellular compartments and how this can be finely orchestrated by specific kinases and phosphatases. In this review, the focus will be placed on (i) the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, specifically on the kinases Akt and mTOR and on the phosphatases PP2a and PTEN, and on (ii) the PKC family of serine/threonine kinases. We will look at general aspects of cell physiology controlled by these kinases and phosphatases, highlighting the signalling pathways that drive cell division, proliferation, and apoptosis.
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