Proteomics is one among various 'OMICS' fields that have been growing rapidly in the postgenomic era. During the past few years, proteomics has been extensively applied to several fields of medicine to better understand normal physiology, to define the pathophysiology of diseases, and to identify novel biomarkers and new therapeutic targets. This review focuses on current status and future directions of proteomics in the nephrology field. Recent studies of renal proteome, proteomes of individual intrarenal structures (i.e., glomerular, vascular, tubular, brush border membrane, mesangial, and podocyte proteomes), urinary proteome, and protein profiles in dialysate or ultrafiltrate removed by renal replacement therapy are summarized.
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