Food and beverages are the only physical matter we take into our body, if we disregard the air we inhale and the drugs we may have to apply. While traditional nutrition research has aimed at providing nutrients to nourish populations and preventing specific nutrient deficiencies, it more recently explores health-related aspects of individual bioactive components as well as entire diets and this at group rather than population level. The new era of nutrition research translates empirical knowledge to evidence-based molecular science. Modern nutrition research focuses on promoting health, preventing or delaying the onset of disease, optimizing performance, and assessing risk. Personalized nutrition is a conceptual analogue to personalized medicine and means adapting food to individual needs. Nutrigenomics and nutrigenetics build the science foundation for understanding human variability in preferences, requirements, and responses to diet and may become the future tools for consumer assessment motivated by personalized nutritional counseling for health maintenance and disease prevention. The scope of this paper is to review the current and future aspects of nutritional proteomics, focusing on the two main outputs: identification of health biomarkers and analysis of food bioactives.
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