Proven Experiences with Alternative Fuels in Cement Kilns

  • Baier H
  • Menzel K
  • 17


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • N/A


    Citations of this article.


Worldwide the availability of resources and its economical access is the driving force for searching for alternatives. Initially the cement industry has started after the oil crisis in the early 80th to use Residue Derived Fuels (RDF), mainly used oil and tyres, and has increased to a worldwide average about 10 % of the thermal energy demand in 2010, based on different types of hazardous and non-hazardous waste out of industrial and municipal origin. This trend is intended to maintain as well within the coming years due to possible economic benefits, and due to the necessity to significantly cut cement industry’s CO2 emissions, which contribute nearly 5 % to the total worldwide CO2 production. The article will focus on the main aspects of pre-processing of waste and co-processing of RDF in cement kilns, by identification, waste management, pre-treating and utilization in the cement clinker process with sophisticated processing techniques for starting with simple procedures for mono-stuff- streams as well as mechanical-biological treatment for mixed municipal solid waste. The process of clinker burning has to be assessed with regard to technical options and defaults. The pre-processing and handling concept within the cement plant as well as the impact of RDF on the manufacturing process will be emphasised. Of major importance in this context are pyroprocessing as well as RDF-combustion at its point of entrance, impact on product and emission. Based on these prerequisites, some particular techniques for the RDF use in pre-calciners and rotary kiln main burners will be presented, mainly featuring an intelligent fuel mix management, additional measures such as mechanical or thermal pre-treatment, and process-integrated measures such as modi- fied main burners or process parameter adoptions in case of direct RDF feeding into the pre-calciner. In the following, concepts are introduced based on the mechanical, physical and thermal processing of alternative fuels. Keywords:

Author-supplied keywords

  • CO2
  • Energy costs
  • RDF
  • alternative fuel
  • calciner
  • cement industry
  • co-processing
  • environment
  • main burner
  • pre- processing
  • quality
  • rotary kiln
  • step combustor.

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document

There are no full text links


  • Hubert Baier

  • Karl Menzel

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free