Compensation for the proximity effect in electron lithography can be achieved by equalization of the backscattered dose received by all pattern points. This is accomplished by exposing the reverse tone of the required pattern with a beam diameter dc=2σb ×(1+ηe)−1/4 and dose Qc=Qe ×[ηe/(1+ηe)], where σb is the radius of the Gaussian spatial distribution function of backscattered electrons at normally exposed pixels, ηe is the ratio of backscattered to forwardscattered energy, and Qe is the dose delivered to normally exposed pixels. This correction method has been confirmed to work for 500‐nm features by computer simulation of electron beam exposure and development and by experiment on a raster scan electron beam lithography system.
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