Numerical classifications are used to compare vegetation and soil characteristics at virgin, logged, slash-burned, wildfire burned, and rock-racked sites in northeastern Minnesota and Western Ontario. Virgin sites are dominated by Pinus banksiana Lamb. and Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP. and adjacent disturbed sites were previously dominated by these species. The vegetation of each study site is related to regional upland community types by discriminant and canonical analysis. A relationship between predisturbance and postdisturbance vegetation is indicated, regardless of the type of disturbance. Sites disturbed by logging or logging followed by slash burning are more similar to virgin sites than to wildfire or rock-raked sites, which are generally more similar to one another than to any of the other sites. The wildfire and rock-raked sites have undergone significant vegetational changes, but the difference in invander species indicates that the types of changes have not been the same. The number of invader species present is influenced by the type of disturbance experienced by a site. An important consequence of rock-raking is the movement of nutrients from timber producing areas to windrows.
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