The cytotoxic effect of ionizing radiation makes it a popular therapeutic tool against cancer. It is, however, a double-edged sword. Radiation exposure unleashes a plethora of protective and survival mechanisms that include increased proliferation, remodeling of the vasculature and altered cell motility. These mechanisms can play a pro-survival role in remaining cells, contributing to repopulation of tumors after radiation treatment. Understanding these mechanisms and finding ways to minimize their impact would improve the outcome of radiotherapy. © 2012 Elsevier Inc..
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