In passive localization, sensors try to locate an event without any knowledge of event's emitted power. So, this is a more challenging problem compared to active localization. Existing passive localization schemes use expensive and noise-vulnerable range-based techniques. In this paper, we propose, to the best of our knowledge for the first time, a cost-effective range-free passive localization scheme exploiting hybrid sensor network model where mobile sensors are deployed on demand once an event is sensed by a static sensor. Efficient use of mobile sensors leads to two concomitant optimization problems: (1) positioning the mobile sensors so that the expected possible event location area is minimized; and (2) minimizing their overall traversed distance. To solve the first problem, we have developed a novel arc-coding based range-free localization technique that can accurately define the area of possible event location from the feedback of arbitrarily placed sensors without relying on expensive hardware to estimate range of signals. We have achieved significantly high localization accuracy with a low number of mobile sensors even after considering significant environmental noise. To solve the second problem, three alternative deployment strategies for the mobile sensors were simulated to recommend the best. © 2012 IEEE.
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