Recent advances in antiretroviral therapy

  • T.S. K
  • P.V. R
  • V.R. P
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Despite significant progress in the study of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection over the past few years, it still remains a leading cause of death throughout the world. The field of antiretrovirals is dramatically growing. 25 antiretroviral drugs have been approved by the US-FDA till date. The development of newer antiretrovirals has dramatically altered the progression of the disease and has improved the quality of life in many HIV-infected patients. Over the last two years, three novel antiretroviral drugs, maraviroc (CCR5 antagonist), raltegravir (integrase inhibitor) and etravirine (a second generation non nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor) have been approved by the FDA and several others are in the pipeline. This review discusses the pharmacology of the three novel antiretroviral agents. Drugs which are currently in the pipeline and the latest HIV treatment guidelines have also been addressed.

Author-supplied keywords

  • *Human immunodeficiency virus infection/dm [Diseas
  • *Human immunodeficiency virus infection/dt [Drug T
  • *antiretrovirus agent/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • Human immunodeficiency virus infected patient
  • Human immunodeficiency virus infection/dt [Drug Th
  • RNA directed DNA polymerase inhibitor/ae [Adverse
  • RNA directed DNA polymerase inhibitor/dt [Drug The
  • RNA directed DNA polymerase inhibitor/pd [Pharmaco
  • Stevens Johnson syndrome/si [Side Effect]
  • abdominal obesity/si [Side Effect]
  • abdominal pain/si [Side Effect]
  • abnormal laboratory result/si [Side Effect]
  • alanine aminotransferase blood level
  • anemia/si [Side Effect]
  • anxiety
  • apricitabine/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • apricitabine/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • arthralgia/si [Side Effect]
  • aspartate aminotransferase blood level
  • atazanavir/it [Drug Interaction]
  • carbamazepine/it [Drug Interaction]
  • cause of death
  • chemokine receptor CCR5 antagonist/dt [Drug Therap
  • chemokine receptor CCR5 antagonist/pd [Pharmacolog
  • cholesterol blood level
  • clinical trial
  • coughing/si [Side Effect]
  • creatine kinase blood level
  • cyst/si [Side Effect]
  • depression/si [Side Effect]
  • diabetes mellitus/si [Side Effect]
  • diarrhea/si [Side Effect]
  • dizziness/si [Side Effect]
  • drug approval
  • efavirenz/it [Drug Interaction]
  • elvitegravir/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • elvitegravir/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • enfuvirtide/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • enfuvirtide/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • enfuvirtide/pa [Parenteral Drug Administration]
  • etravirine/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • etravirine/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • etravirine/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • etravirine/pd [Pharmacology]
  • fatigue/si [Side Effect]
  • fatty liver/si [Side Effect]
  • fever/si [Side Effect]
  • food and drug administration
  • gastrointestinal symptom/si [Side Effect]
  • granulocytopenia/si [Side Effect]
  • headache/si [Side Effect]
  • heart muscle ischemia/si [Side Effect]
  • hepatitis/si [Side Effect]
  • hepatomegaly/si [Side Effect]
  • human
  • hypertension/si [Side Effect]
  • injection site erythema/si [Side Effect]
  • injection site induration/si [Side Effect]
  • injection site nodule/si [Side Effect]
  • injection site pain/si [Side Effect]
  • injection site reaction/si [Side Effect]
  • insomnia/si [Side Effect]
  • insulin resistance/si [Side Effect]
  • integrase inhibitor/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • integrase inhibitor/pd [Pharmacology]
  • ketoconazole/it [Drug Interaction]
  • lactic acidosis/si [Side Effect]
  • lamivudine/it [Drug Interaction]
  • lipodystrophy/si [Side Effect]
  • lopinavir plus ritonavir/it [Drug Interaction]
  • maraviroc/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • maraviroc/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • maraviroc/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • maraviroc/it [Drug Interaction]
  • maraviroc/pd [Pharmacology]
  • maraviroc/pk [Pharmacokinetics]
  • midazolam/it [Drug Interaction]
  • myalgia/si [Side Effect]
  • myopathy/si [Side Effect]
  • nausea/si [Side Effect]
  • nose congestion/si [Side Effect]
  • oral contraceptive agent/it [Drug Interaction]
  • orthostatic hypotension/si [Side Effect]
  • pancreatitis/si [Side Effect]
  • paresthesia/si [Side Effect]
  • peripheral neuropathy/si [Side Effect]
  • pharyngitis/si [Side Effect]
  • phenobarbital/it [Drug Interaction]
  • phenytoin/it [Drug Interaction]
  • proteinase inhibitor/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • proteinase inhibitor/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • quality of life
  • raltegravir/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • raltegravir/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • raltegravir/dt [Drug Therapy]
  • raltegravir/it [Drug Interaction]
  • raltegravir/pd [Pharmacology]
  • raltegravir/pk [Pharmacokinetics]
  • raltegravir/po [Oral Drug Administration]
  • rash/si [Side Effect]
  • recommended drug dose
  • review
  • rhinopharyngitis/si [Side Effect]
  • rifampicin/it [Drug Interaction]
  • rilpivirine/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • rilpivirine/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • ritonavir plus tipranavir/it [Drug Interaction]
  • ritonavir/it [Drug Interaction]
  • saquinavir/it [Drug Interaction]
  • side effect/si [Side Effect]
  • skin tingling/si [Side Effect]
  • sleep disorder/si [Side Effect]
  • steroid/it [Drug Interaction]
  • triacylglycerol blood level
  • unindexed drug
  • upper respiratory tract infection/si [Side Effect]
  • vicriviroc/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • vicriviroc/ct [Clinical Trial]
  • vomiting/si [Side Effect]
  • wasting syndrome/si [Side Effect]
  • zidovudine/it [Drug Interaction] XT - abdominal o

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  • Kamat T.S.

  • Rataboli P.V.

  • Phirke V.R.

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