Substantial efforts have been made over the past decade to develop vaccines against tuberculosis. We review recent developments in tuberculosis vaccines in the global portfolio, including those designed for use in a prophylactic setting, either alone or as boosts to Bacille Calmette–Gué rin, and therapeutic vaccines designed to improve chemotherapy. While there is no doubt that progress is still being made, there are limitations to our animal model screening processes, which are further amplified by the lack of understanding of the immunological responses involved and the precise type of long-lived immunity that new vaccines need to induce. The challenge ahead is to optimize the planning for advanced clinical trials in poor endemic settings, which could be greatly facilitated by identifying correlates of protection.
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