Reducing the Impact of Pesticides on Biological Control in Australian Vineyards: Pesticide Mortality and Fecundity Effects on an Indicator Species, the Predatory Mite Euseius victoriensis (Acari: Phytoseiidae)

  • Bernard M
  • Cole P
  • Kobelt A
 et al. 
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Laboratory bioassays on detached soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merr., leaves were used to test 23 fungicides, Þve insecticides, two acaricides, one herbicide, and two adjuvants on a key Australian predatory mite species Euseius victoriensis (Womersley) in “worst-case scenario” direct overspray assays. Zero- to 48-h-old juveniles, their initial food,andwater supplyweresprayed to runoff with a Potter tower; spinosad and wettable sulfur residues also were tested. Tests were standardized to deliver a pesticide dose comparable with commercial application of highest label rates at 1,000 liter/ha. Cumulative mortality was assessed 48 h, 4 d, and 7 d after spraying. Fecundity was assessed for 7 d from start of oviposition. No signiÞcant mortality or fecundity effects were detected for the following compounds at single-use application at 1,000 liter/ha: azoxystrobin, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) subsp. kurstaki, captan, chlorothalonil, copper hydroxide, fenarimol, glyphosate, hexaconazole, indoxacarb, metalaxyl/copper hydroxide, myclobutanil, nonyl phenol ethylene oxide, phosphorous acid, potassium bicarbonate, pyraclostrobin, quinoxyfen, spiroxamine, synthetic latex, tebufenozide, triadimenol,andtrißoxystrobin. Iprodioneandpenconazolehadsomedetrimental effectonfecundity. Canola oil as acaricide (2 liter/100 liter) and wettable sulfur (200 g/100 liter) had some detrimental effect on survival and fecundity and cyprodinil/ßudioxonil on survivor. The following compounds were highly toxic (high 48-h mortality): benomyl, carbendazim, emamectin benzoate, mancozeb, spinosad (direct overspray and residue), wettable sulfur (400 g/100 liter), and pyrimethanil; pyrimethanil had no signiÞcant effect on fecundity of surviving females. Indoxacarb safety to E. victoriensis contrasts with its toxicity to key parasitoids and chrysopid predators. Potential impact of Þndings is discussed.

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  • Martina B. Bernard

  • Peter Cole

  • Amanda Kobelt

  • Paul A. Horne

  • James Altmann

  • Stephen D. Wratten

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