Because approximately 70% of uric acid is excreted from the kidney, hyperuricemia occurs when renal function deteriorates. Until now, it has not been clear if the hyperuricemia seen in such renal diseases plays a role in the progression of renal disease. However, recent clinical studies show that the serum uric acid value is closely associated with hypertension in hyperuricemic patients (cross-sectional study), and also with the onset of hypertension (longitudinal study). Furthermore, one interesting report shows that treatment of hyperuricemia with allopurinol lowers blood pressure in juvenile essential hypertension patients with hyperuricemia. In addition, it is well known that hyperuricemia is closely associated with chronic kidney disease (CKD), is a risk factor for renal insufficiency in general populations, and is a poor prognostic factor of renal function in patients who also have IgA nephropathy. On the other hand, in intervention studies on hyperuricemia, the treatment of hyperuricemia with allopurinol in CKD has resulted in a fall in blood pressure and inhibition of the progression of renal damage. Conversely, the cessation of allopurinol treatment in CKD was followed by a rise in blood pressure and the development of renal damage. Furthermore, the rise of blood pressure and development of renal damage following cessation of allopurinol treatment are only seen in patients not receiving angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB). This suggests that the renin angiotensin (RA) system plays an important role in the development of hypertension and renal damage from hyperuricemia.
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