While previous studies have found that threats to masculinity are associated with aggression and anxiety in men, no studies have examined the effects of threat on perceptions of masculinity directly. Sixty heterosexually identified men were divided into the low sexual prejudice or high sexual prejudice group based on an index of sexual prejudice, and their masculine identity was either "threatened" or not in a 2 × 2 quasi-experimental design. We find that threats to masculinity differentially impact men who are high and low in sexual prejudice. Specifically, we find that men with low sexual prejudice react to masculinity threat by perceiving themselves to be more masculine, while men with high sexual prejudice react to threat by perceiving themselves to be less masculine on the Bem (1974) Sex Role Inventory, F(1, 56) = 4.58, p < .037, ηp
2 = .16. Implications of these patterns of results for aggression are discussed. © 2011 American Psychological Association.
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