Journal article

On the relationship between total ozone and atmospheric dynamics and chemistry at mid-latitudes – Part 2: The effects of the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, volcanic eruptions and contributions of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry to long-term total ozone

Rieder H, Frossard L, Ribatet M, Staehelin J, Maeder J, Di Rocco S, Davison A, Peter T, Weihs P, Holawe F ...see all

Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, vol. 12, issue 5 (2013) pp. 13201-13236

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Abstract

We present the first spatial analysis of ``fingerprints{''} of the El
Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and atmospheric aerosol load after
major volcanic eruptions (El Chichon and Mt. Pinatubo) in extreme low
and high (termed ELOs and EHOs, respectively) and mean values of total
ozone for the northern and southern mid-latitudes (defined as the region
between 30 degrees and 60 degrees north and south, respectively).
Significant influence on ozone extremes was found for the warm ENSO
phase in both hemispheres during spring, especially towards low
latitudes, indicating the enhanced ozone transport from the tropics to
the extra-tropics. Further, the results confirm findings of recent work
on the connection between the ENSO phase and the strength and extent of
the southern ozone ``collar{''}. For the volcanic eruptions the analysis
confirms findings of earlier studies for the northern mid-latitudes and
gives new insights for the Southern Hemisphere. The results provide
evidence that the negative effect of the eruption of El Chichon might be
partly compensated by a strong warm ENSO phase in 1982-1983 at southern
mid-latitudes. The strong west-east gradient in the coefficient
estimates for the Mt. Pinatubo eruption and the analysis of the
relationship between the AAO and ENSO phase, the extent and the position
of the southern ozone ``collar{''} and the polar vortex structure
provide clear evidence for a dynamical `` masking{''} of the volcanic
signal at southern mid-latitudes. The paper also analyses the
contribution of atmospheric dynamics and chemistry to long-term total
ozone changes. Here, quite heterogeneous results have been found on
spatial scales. In general the results show that EESC and the 11-yr
solar cycle can be identified as major contributors to long-term ozone
changes. However, a strong contribution of dynamical features (El
Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO), North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO),
Antarctic Oscillation (AAO), Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO)) to ozone
variability and trends is found at a regional level. For the QBO (at 30
and 50 hPa), strong influence on total ozone variability and trends is
found over large parts of the northern and southern mid-latitudes,
especially towards equatorial latitudes. Strong influence of ENSO is
found over the Northern and Southern Pacific, Central Europe and central
southern mid-latitudes. For the NAO, strong influence on column ozone is
found over Labrador/Greenland, the Eastern United States, the
Euro-Atlantic Sector, and Central Europe. For the NAO's southern
counterpart, the AAO, strong influence on ozone variability and
long-term changes is found at lower southern mid-latitudes, including
the southern parts of South America and the Antarctic Peninsula, and
central southern mid-latitudes.

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Authors

  • H. E. Rieder

  • L. Frossard

  • Mathieu Ribatet

  • J. Staehelin

  • J. a. Maeder

  • S. Di Rocco

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