The research examined preparedness for repatriation, cultural identity change, and attributions of causality on the repatriation experience. Forty-four American managers returning from 6 months to 4 years abroad participated in the study. In line with the predictions, preparedness for repatriation and cultural identity change predicted repatriation distress. Those repatriates who were the least prepared and had the most cultural identity change experienced more severe repatriate distress. Additionally, confirming a third hypothesis, sojourners attributed the cause of the distress more to situational locus of causality, more to external control and less to personal control. Preparedness and repatriation experience were assessed by several new author-designed measures. The repatriation preparedness scale, the psychological subscale of the repatriation experience assessment, and a scale of self-change as an outcome of overseas living were highly internally consistent. © 2001 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.
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