Reproductive and Developmental Toxicity of Phthalates

  • Lyche J
  • Gutleb A
  • Bergman Å
 et al. 
  • 26

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Abstract

The purposes of this review are to (1) evaluate human and experimental evidence for adverse effects on reproduction and development in humans, produced by exposure to phthalates, and (2) identify knowledge gaps as for future studies. The widespread use of phthalates in consumer products leads to ubiquitous and constant exposure of humans to these chemicals. Phthalates were postulated to produce endocrine-disrupting effects in rodents, where fetal exposure to these compounds was found to induce developmental and reproductive toxicity. The adverse effects observed in rodent models raised concerns as to whether exposure to phthalates represents a potential health risk to humans. At present, di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), and butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP) have been demonstrated to produce reproductive and developmental toxicity; thus, this review focuses on these chemicals. For the general population, DEHP exposure is predominantly via food. The average concentrations of phthala...

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Authors

  • Jan L. Lyche

  • Arno C. Gutleb

  • Åke Bergman

  • Gunnar S. Eriksen

  • AlberTinka J. Murk

  • Erik Ropstad

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