The response of tropical atmospheric energy budgets to ENSO

  • Mayer M
  • Trenberth K
  • Haimberger L
 et al. 
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AbstractThe variability of zonally resolved tropical energy budgets in association with El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) is investigated. The most recent global atmospheric reanalyses from 1979 to 2011 are employed with removal of apparent discontinuities to obtain best possible temporal homogeneity. The growing length of record allows a more robust analysis of characteristic patterns of variability with cross-correlation, composite, and EOF methods. A quadrupole anomaly pattern is found in the vertically integrated energy divergence associated with ENSO, with centers over the Indian Ocean, the Indo-Pacific warm pool, the eastern equatorial Pacific, and the Atlantic. The smooth transition, particularly of the main maxima of latent and dry static energy divergence, from the western to the eastern Pacific is found to require at least two EOFs to be adequately described. The canonical El Niño pattern (EOF-1) and a transition pattern (EOF-2; referred to as El Niño Modoki by some authors) form remarkably co...

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  • Michael Mayer

  • Kevin E. Trenberth

  • Leopold Haimberger

  • John T. Fasullo

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