We survey progress over the past 25 years in the development of microscale devices for pumping fluids. We attempt to provide both a reference for micropump researchers and a resource for those outside the field who wish to identify the best micropump for a particular application. Reciprocating displacement micropumps have been the subject of extensive research in both academia and the private sector and have been produced with a wide range of actuators, valve configurations and materials. Aperiodic displacement micropumps based on mechanisms such as localized phase change have been shown to be suitable for specialized applications. Electroosmotic micropumps exhibit favorable scaling and are promising for a variety of applications requiring high flow rates and pressures. Dynamic micropumps based on electrohydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic effects have also been developed. Much progress has been made, but with micropumps suitable for important applications still not available, this remains a fertile area for future research.
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