A wide range of microelectromechanical systems (MEMSs) and devices are actuated using electrostatic forces. Multiphysics modeling is required, since coupling among different fields such as solid and fluid mechanics, thermomechanics and electromagnetism is involved. This work presents an overview of models for electrostatically actuated MEMSs. Three-dimensional nonlinear formulations for the coupled electromechanical fluid–structure interaction problem are outlined. Simplified reduced-order models are illustrated along with assumptions that define their range of applicability. Theoretical, numerical and experimental works are classified according to the mechanical model used in the analysis.
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