The majority of scheduling research assumes setup as negligible or part of the processing time. While this assumption simplifies the analysis and/or reflects certain applications, it adversely affects the solution quality for many applications which require explicit treatment of setup. Such applications, coupled with the emergence of production concepts like time-based competition and group technology, have motivated increasing interest to include setup considerations in scheduling problems. This paper provides a comprehensive review of the literature on scheduling problems involving setup times (costs). It classifies scheduling problems into batch and non-batch, sequence-independent and sequence-dependent setup, and categorizes the literature according to the shop environments of single machine, parallel machines, flowshops, and job shops. The suggested classification scheme organizes the scheduling literature involving setup considerations, summarizes the current research results for different problem types, and finally provides guidelines for future research.
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