A variety of techniques are available enabling both invasive measurement, where the monitoring device is installed in the medium of interest, and noninvasive measurement where the monitoring system observes the medium of interest remotely. In this article we review the general techniques available, as well as specific instruments for particular applications. The issues of measurement criteria including accuracy, thermal disturbance and calibration are described. Based on the relative merits of different techniques, a guide for their selection is provided. © 2000 American Institute of Physics.
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