This study provides an analysis of the technological barriers for all-electric vehicles, either based on batteries (BEVs) or on H2-powered proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells (FCEVs). After an initial comparison of the two technologies, we examine the likely limits for lithium ion batteries for BEV applications, and compare the projected cell- and system-level energy densities with those which could be expected from lithium-air and lithium-sulfur batteries. Subsequently, we will review the current development status of H2 PEM fuel cells, with particular attention to their viability with regards to the required amount of platinum and the resulting cost and availability constraints.
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