Perelleschus Wibmer & O’Brien (Curculionidae: Curculioninae: Derelomini) is revised, including the redescription of P. carludovicae (Günther) from Costa Rica and P. rectirostris Voss from Perú, as well as the addition of six new species: P. evelynae, new species, from Colombia and Panama; P. variabilis, new species, from Ecuador; P. biventralis, new species, from Ecuador; P. splendidus, new species, from Costa Rica and Panama; P. pubicoxae, new species, from Panama; and P. sulcatae, new species, from Costa Rica. The following putative synapomorphies are proposed for Perelleschus: (1) row of spines that extends along the entire length of the protibial apex; (2) basally broadened aedeagal apodemes in males (excepting P. rectirostris); and (3) basal, acute appendix of the spermatheca in females. Perelleschus subcinctus Voss lacks these and is transferred to Phyllotrox Schönherr as Phy. subcintus (Voss), new combination. Perelleschus is associated with Carludovica Ruíz & Pavón (Cyclanthaceae). Observations on the biologies of the species, in particular P. carludovicae and P. sulcatae on C. sulcata Hammel at La Selva, Costa Rica, indicate that the adults are pollinators, whereas the larvae consume the pulp and seeds of the infructescences. A cladistic analysis - with Staminodeus vectoris Franz, a new species of Derelomini, and Systenotelus costaricensis Anderson & Gómez as outgroup taxa - proposes the phylogenetic relationships (P. rectirostris, ((P. evelynae, P. variabilis), (P. biventralis, P. splendidus, (P. pubicoxae, (P. carludovicae, P. sulcatae))))).
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