The rise of graphene

  • Geim A
  • Novoselov K
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Graphene is a rapidly rising star on the horizon of materials science and
condensed matter physics. This strictly two-dimensional material exhibits
exceptionally high crystal and electronic quality and, despite its short
history, has already revealed a cornucopia of new physics and potential
applications, which are briefly discussed here. Whereas one can be certain of
the realness of applications only when commercial products appear, graphene no
longer requires any further proof of its importance in terms of fundamental
physics. Owing to its unusual electronic spectrum, graphene has led to the
emergence of a new paradigm of 'relativistic' condensed matter physics, where
quantum relativistic phenomena, some of which are unobservable in high energy
physics, can now be mimicked and tested in table-top experiments. More
generally, graphene represents a conceptually new class of materials that are
only one atom thick and, on this basis, offers new inroads into low-dimensional
physics that has never ceased to surprise and continues to provide a fertile
ground for applications.

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  • A. K. Geim

  • K. S. Novoselov

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