OBJECTIVE: We aimed to elucidate risk factors for intravesical recurrence of high-grade T1 bladder cancer in the second transurethral resection era.
METHODS: The analysis included 73 patients with high-grade T1 bladder cancer on initial transurethral resection. The median follow-up period was 49.2 months. Recurrence-free survival, progression-free survival and risk factors related to the presence of residual tumors or recurrence-free survival were statistically analyzed.
RESULTS: The pathological findings for second transurethral resection were pT0 36 (49%), pTis/a 21 (29%), pT1 13 (18%) and pT2 3 (4%), respectively. The risk factor for residual tumors at second transurethral resection was the presence of concomitant carcinoma in situ at the initial transurethral resection (P < 0.01). The bladder was preserved in all 57 patients with pT0/is/a tumors on second transurethral resection, and 43 patients (75%) received intravesical BCG therapy. Of these patients, 3-year recurrence-free survival and 3-year progression-free survival rates were 81 and 96%, respectively. In addition, the presence of pTis/a residual tumors on second transurethral resection had a significant impact on the recurrence. Five of the 13 patients with pT1 on second transurethral resection were immediately treated by radical cystectomy or radiation therapy combined with chemotherapy, and two (25%) of the eight who were treated by intravesical BCG therapy had progression including distant metastasis.
CONCLUSIONS: High recurrence-free survival and progression-free survival were achieved by a second transurethral resection and intravesical BCG therapy in the patients with pT0/is/a on the second transurethral resection. In this group, the residual tumors at second transurethral resection are risk factors for intravesical recurrence.
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