Risk Factors for Nipah Virus Encephalitis in Bangladesh1

  • Montgomery J
  • Hossain M
  • Gurley E
 et al. 
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Nipah virus {(NiV)} is a paramyxovirus that causes severe encephalitis in humans. During January 2004, twelve patients with {NiV} encephalitis {(NiVE)} were identified in west-central Bangladesh. A case–control study was conducted to identify factors associated with {NiV} infection. {NiVE} patients from the outbreak were enrolled in a matched case-control study. Exact odds ratios {(ORs)} and 95% confidence intervals {(CIs)} were calculated by using a matched analysis. Climbing trees (83% of cases vs. 51% of controls, {OR} 8.2, 95% {CI} 1.25–∞) and contact with another {NiVE} patient (67% of cases vs. 9% of controls, {OR} 21.4, 95% {CI} 2.78–966.1) were associated with infection. We did not identify an increased risk for {NiV} infection among persons who had contact with a potential intermediate host. Although we cannot rule out person-to-person transmission, case-patients were likely infected from contact with fruit bats or their secretions.

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  • Joel M Montgomery

  • Mohamed J Hossain

  • E Gurley

  • D S Carroll

  • A Croisier

  • E Bertherat

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