People living with lymphohematopoietic neoplasms (LHNs) are known to have increased risks of second cancer; however, the incidence of second cancers after LHNs has not been studied extensively in Australia. The Australian Cancer Database was used to analyze site-specific risk of second primary cancer after LHNs in 127,707 patients diagnosed between 1983 and 2005. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated using population rates. Overall, patients with an LHN had nearly twice the risk of developing a second cancer compared to the Australian population. Among 40,321 patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL), there was over a fourfold significant increase in melanoma, Kaposi sarcoma, cancer of the lip, connective tissue and peripheral nerves, eye, thyroid, Hodgkin's disease (HD) and myeloid leukemia. Among 6,396 patients with HD, there was over a fourfold significant increase in melanoma, Kaposi sarcoma, cancer of the lip, oral cavity and pharynx, female breast, uterine cervix, testis, thyroid, NHL and myeloid leukemia. Among the 33,025 patients with lymphoid and myeloid leukemia, significant excess were seen for cancers of the lip, eye, connective tissue and peripheral nerves, NHL and HD. Among the 13,856 patients with plasma cell tumors, there was over fourfold significant increase for melanoma, cancer of the connective tissue and peripheral nerves and myeloid leukemia. Our findings provide evidence of an increased risk of cancer, particularly ultraviolet radiation- and immunosuppression-related cancers, after an LHN in Australia.
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