Endometriosis infiltrating the sacral nerve roots is a rarely reported manifestation of the disease. The objectives of this article are to report such a case and to describe the surgical technique for laparoscopic decompression of sacral nerve roots and treatment of endometriosis at this site. The patient as a 38-year-old woman who had undergone 2 previous laparoscopic procedures for electrocoagulation of peritoneal endometriosis and self-reported perimenstrual right-sided sciatica and urinary retention. Clinical examination revealed allodynia (pain from a stimulus that does not normally cause pain) on the S2 to S4 dermatomes and hypoesthesia on part of the S3 dermatome. Magnetic resonance imaging showed an endometriotic nodule infiltrating the anterior rectal wall. Laparoscopic exploration of the sacral nerve roots demonstrated vascular compression of the lumbosacral trunk and endometriosis entrapping the S2 to S4 sacral nerve roots, with an endometrioma inside S3. The endometriosis was removed from the sacral nerve roots and detached from the sacral bone, and a nodulectomy of the anterior rectal wall was performed. Normal urinary function was restored on postoperative day 2, and pain resolved after a period of post-decompression. Intrapelvic causes of entrapment of sacral nerve roots are rarely described in the current literature, either because of misdiagnosis or actual rareness of the condition. Recognition of the clinical markers for these lesions may lead to an increase in diagnosis and specific treatment. © 2012 AAGL.
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