Journal article

Safe Operating Space for Humanity

Johan Rockstrom ...see all

Nature, vol. 461, issue September (2009) pp. 472-476

  • 388


    Mendeley users who have this article in their library.
  • N/A


    Citations of this article.
  • N/A


    ScienceDirect users who have downloaded this article.
Sign in to save reference


Holocene=environmental stability, last 10,000 yrs. Planetary boundaries define safe operating space of humanity within the biosphere: climate change, rate of biodiversity loss, interference with nitrogen and phosphorus cycles, stratospheric ozone depletion, ocean acidification, global freshwater use, land overuse, atmospheric aerosol loading. Safe or at dangerous levels. We are past 3 and approaching 3. Species extinction is natural but is much accelerated 100-1000 times in the anthropocene era. Too much nitrogen causes overgrowth and pollution, anoxic conditions.

Get free article suggestions today

Mendeley saves you time finding and organizing research

Sign up here
Already have an account ?Sign in

Find this document


  • Johan Rockstrom

Cite this document

Choose a citation style from the tabs below

Save time finding and organizing research with Mendeley

Sign up for free