This study examines the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of a nasal spray to induce anesthesia of maxillary teeth. Forty-five healthy adults requiring restoration of one maxillary tooth were randomized in a 1:2 ratio to receive (1) an intra-oral lidocaine-epinephrine injection with buffered saline nasal spray bilaterally, or (2) a tetracaine hydrochloride-oxymetazoline hydrochloride nasal spray bilaterally with sham injection. Primary endpoints were use of rescue anesthesia and patient global pain assessment. Secondary outcomes included vital sign changes, soft-tissue anesthesia, and treatment-emergent adverse events. In intent-to-treat analysis, 25 of 30 patients given nasal spray (83.3%) did not require rescue anesthesia. Proportion of anesthesia successes for nasal spray was significantly different from the hypothesized placebo anesthesia success of 30% (one-sided p value < .0001 by exact binomial test). Mean duration of soft-tissue anesthesia did not differ significantly by treatment for 3 of 4 sites assessed. No serious adverse events or systemic effects were observed. Tetracaine hydrochloride-oxymetazoline nasal spray appears to provide adequate and safe anesthesia for the majority of maxillary dental procedures. Based on the results from this Phase 2 study, pivotal trials are warranted to validate these findings in an expanded patient population.
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