Sampling and Measurement of Ammonia at Animal Facilities

  • Ni J
  • Heber A
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Abstract

Scientific understanding and technical control of ammonia (NH3) at animal facilities, including animal buildings, feedlots, manure storages, and manure treatment plants, depend on reliable sampling and measurement techniques to ensure high quality data that are essential to the study and abatement of NH3emission. This chapter focuses on the methodology and technology of NH3sampling and measurement that has been tested or applied under field conditions since the 1960s. It draws a comprehensive and updated picture of the state of the art of NH3concentration measurement at animal facilities. Ammonia sampling requires selection of location, time, and/or control of sample volume. Three sampling methods, the closed, point, and open-path methods, are summarized. Thirty-one measurement instruments/sensors are identified. They are categorized in nine groups and evaluated according to their technical characteristics. Field studies or applications of these instruments/sensors are reviewed and summarized. Principles, procedures, advantages, and disadvantages of various sampling and measurement techniques are discussed. An overview of data and data quality is provided. Errors resulted from calibration, sampling, measurement, and data processing are discussed. Error reduction methods are presented. Recommendations are made for selection of sampling methods and measurement devices and for future needs including development of methodologies and standards. © 2008 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

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