Detailed studies of the association between the epilepsies and the schizophrenias extend over 40 years. Recent studies are abundant and make fertile use of new technologies. However, the pathological changes described in schizophrenias are quite varied. Studies fail to recognize that "epilepsies" and "schizophrenias" have varied in definition over time, and have always been weak categories with which to do science. Now that it is possible to measure deficits in brain structure, it would be better to see what behavioral problems are associated with specific cerebral pathology. It would be wise to be very precise in describing the behaviors and the nature and timing of their emergence rather than using terms such as psychoses. Schizophrenias have neurological, neuropsychological, and behavioral antecedents in childhood. Those associated with later epilepsies show biases, persistent in many studies over a number of years, toward relative excess of females, left temporal lobe structural deficits, and non-right-handedness. Schizophrenia should now be a predictable eventuality in certain people with epilepsies, an important factor in medical and surgical treatment. © 2003 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
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