Three dimensional (3D) ion beam lithography (IBL) is used to directly pattern 3D photonic crystal (PhC) structures in crystalline titania. The process is maskless and direct write. The slanted pore 3D structures with pore diameters of 100 nm having aspect ratio of 8 were formed. It is shown that chemical enhancement of titania removal up to 5.2 times is possible in XeF2 gas for the closest nozzle-to-sample distance; the enhancement was ∼ 1.5 times for the actual 3D patterning due to a sample tilt. Tolerances of structural parameters and optimization of IBL processing required for the fabrication of PhCs with full photonic bandgap in visible spectral range in rutile are outlined. Application potential of 3D-IBL is discussed.
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