Sedation and analgesia for procedures outside the operating room

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The volume of literature concerning sedation and analgesia for procedures outside the operating room has increased greatly over the past several years. Information relating to sedation risks and complications, the development of sedation guidelines, and now specific sedation techniques has appeared. The following section will trace the development of the most recent sedation guidelines and identify the key elements for inclusion into institutional sedation guidelines. The risks and complications associated with sedation will be addressed and an approach to providing sedation and analgesia for procedures outside the operating room will be presented. The important characteristics of several common drugs used for sedation and analgesia will also be discussed. © 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • *analgesia
  • *sedation
  • EMLA/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • EMLA/pk [Pharmacokinetics]
  • EMLA/tp [Topical Drug Administration]
  • adrenalin/tp [Topical Drug Administration]
  • airway
  • airway obstruction/si [Side Effect]
  • anesthesia
  • anesthetic agent/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • anesthetic agent/cb [Drug Combination]
  • anesthetic agent/do [Drug Dose]
  • anesthetic agent/pd [Pharmacology]
  • anesthetic agent/sc [Subcutaneous Drug Administrat
  • anesthetic agent/tp [Topical Drug Administration]
  • apnea/si [Side Effect]
  • aspiration
  • benzodiazepine receptor blocking agent/ae [Adverse
  • benzodiazepine receptor blocking agent/iv [Intrave
  • benzodiazepine/cm [Drug Comparison]
  • bleeding
  • bupivacaine/tp [Topical Drug Administration]
  • cardiovascular depression/si [Side Effect]
  • cardiovascular function
  • chloral hydrate/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • chloral hydrate/po [Oral Drug Administration]
  • chloral hydrate/rc [Rectal Drug Administration]
  • chlorpromazine/cb [Drug Combination]
  • chlorpromazine/pd [Pharmacology]
  • cocaine/tp [Topical Drug Administration]
  • consciousness
  • diazepam/cm [Drug Comparison]
  • dissociative disorder/si [Side Effect]
  • drug fatality/si [Side Effect]
  • drug half life
  • drug metabolite
  • drug overdose
  • drug safety
  • drug uptake
  • drug use
  • electrocardiogram
  • flumazenil/iv [Intravenous Drug Administration]
  • functional anatomy
  • gaze
  • general anesthesia
  • hallucination/si [Side Effect]
  • health status
  • hemodynamics
  • human
  • hypoventilation/si [Side Effect]
  • intracranial pressure
  • intraocular pressure
  • intubation
  • ketamine/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • ketamine/cb [Drug Combination]
  • ketamine/do [Drug Dose]
  • laryngoscopy
  • larynx spasm/si [Side Effect]
  • lidocaine/tp [Topical Drug Administration]
  • local anesthesia
  • local anesthetic agent/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • local anesthetic agent/cb [Drug Combination]
  • local anesthetic agent/do [Drug Dose]
  • local anesthetic agent/im [Intramuscular Drug Admi
  • local anesthetic agent/it [Drug Interaction]
  • local anesthetic agent/iv [Intravenous Drug Admini
  • local anesthetic agent/li [Sublingual Drug Adminis
  • local anesthetic agent/po [Oral Drug Administratio
  • local anesthetic agent/rc [Rectal Drug Administrat
  • local anesthetic agent/sc [Subcutaneous Drug Admin
  • local anesthetic agent/tp [Topical Drug Administra
  • long term care
  • lung ventilation
  • metabolic acidosis/si [Side Effect]
  • methemoglobinemia/si [Side Effect]
  • midazolam/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • midazolam/cb [Drug Combination]
  • midazolam/cm [Drug Comparison]
  • midazolam/im [Intramuscular Drug Administration]
  • midazolam/iv [Intravenous Drug Administration]
  • midazolam/li [Sublingual Drug Administration]
  • midazolam/na [Intranasal Drug Administration]
  • midazolam/po [Oral Drug Administration]
  • midazolam/rc [Rectal Drug Administration]
  • monitoring
  • monoamine oxidase inhibitor/ae [Adverse Drug React
  • monoamine oxidase inhibitor/it [Drug Interaction]
  • narcotic agent
  • nausea/si [Side Effect]
  • noradrenalin/tp [Topical Drug Administration]
  • norpethidine/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • nystagmus/si [Side Effect]
  • operating room
  • opiate/cb [Drug Combination]
  • oxygen
  • pethidine/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • pethidine/cb [Drug Combination]
  • pethidine/im [Intramuscular Drug Administration]
  • pethidine/it [Drug Interaction]
  • pethidine/iv [Intravenous Drug Administration]
  • pethidine/pd [Pharmacology]
  • pethidine/po [Oral Drug Administration]
  • phenothiazine/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • phenothiazine/it [Drug Interaction]
  • practice guideline
  • prilocaine/tp [Topical Drug Administration]
  • priority journal
  • promethazine/cb [Drug Combination]
  • promethazine/pd [Pharmacology]
  • propofol/ae [Adverse Drug Reaction]
  • pruritus/si [Side Effect]
  • pulse oximeter
  • respiration depression/si [Side Effect]
  • resuscitation
  • review
  • risk
  • risk factor
  • side effect/si [Side Effect]
  • tetracaine/tp [Topical Drug Administration]
  • toxicity/si [Side Effect]
  • tranquilizing activity
  • tricyclic antidepressant agent/ae [Adverse Drug Re
  • tricyclic antidepressant agent/it [Drug Interactio
  • unindexed drug
  • vomiting/si [Side Effect]
  • withdrawal syndrome/si [Side Effect]

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