Selective amino acid deficiency in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes

  • Menge B
  • Schrader H
  • Ritter P
 et al. 
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Introduction: Amino acids are important modulators of glucose metabolism,
insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. However, little is known
about the changes in amino acid metabolism in patients with diabetes.
Patients and methods: The circulating amino acid levels were determined
in 17 patients with type 2 diabetes, 17 individuals with impaired
glucose tolerance (IGT), and 14 control subjects. Results: Total
amino acid concentrations were 2850 (plus or minus) 57 (mu)mol/l
in patients with type 2 diabetes, 2980 (plus or minus) 77 (mu)mol/l
in individuals with IGT, and 2886 (plus or minus) 74 (mu)mol/l in
control subjects (p = 0.38). Patients with type 2 diabetes exhibited
significant reductions in the concentrations of gamma-aminobutyric
acid (GABA), arginine, glutamine and phosphoethanolamine (p < 0.05),
whereas valine levels were higher than in controls (p = 0.008). In
IGT subjects, GABA levels were reduced, while tyrosine concentrations
were increased (p < 0.05). The plasma levels of essential amino acids
were positively related to fasting and post-challenge glucose levels,
fasting C-peptide, HOMA insulin resistance and fasting glucagon levels
(p < 0.05). Conclusions: Total amino acid levels are similar in patients
with diabetes, IGT subjects and controls, but the individual levels
of several amino acids differ significantly between these groups.
These alterations may contribute to the disturbances in insulin secretion
and action in diabetic patients and may provide a rationale for offering
specific amino acid supplementations to diabetic patients. (copyright)
2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Author-supplied keywords

  • 4 aminobutyric acid
  • C peptide
  • adult
  • amino acid
  • amino acid blood level
  • amino acid deficiency
  • amino acid metabolism
  • arginine
  • article
  • clinical article
  • controlled study
  • diabetic patient
  • diet restriction
  • diet supplementation
  • essential amino acid
  • female
  • glucagon
  • glucagon blood level
  • glucose
  • glucose blood level
  • glutamine
  • human
  • impaired glucose tolerance
  • insulin
  • insulin release
  • insulin resistance
  • male
  • metformin
  • non insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
  • oral glucose tolerance test
  • phosphoethanolamine
  • priority journal
  • protein blood level
  • tyrosine
  • valine

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  • B A Menge

  • H Schrader

  • P R Ritter

  • M Ellrichmann

  • W Uhl

  • W E Schmidt

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