Objectives: The study aimed to evaluate, (a) the surface morphology of acid etched/conditioned enamel following carbamide peroxide bleaching with/without casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) (Tooth Mousse (MI Paste); GC Corp., Tokyo, Japan) treatment; and b) the nature of the bonded resin-enamel interfaces formed with a self-etching primer adhesive. Methods: Twenty-four human adult molars were each sectioned into four, the specimens divided and treated according to four experimental groups: 1, no treatment; 2, 16% carbamide peroxide bleaching; 3, CPP-ACP paste; 4, bleaching and CPP-ACP paste. A self-etching primer adhesive (Clearfil SE Bond, CSE) was used. The specimens were further divided into four subgroups for etching/conditioning: A, CSE Primer only; B, 30-40% phosphoric acid and CSE primer; C, 15% EDTA and CSE primer; D, 20% polyacrylic acid and CSE primer. Bonded specimens were also prepared. The morphology of the etched/conditioned enamel surfaces and polished resin-enamel interfaces of the bonded specimens were observed by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Results: Treatment with CPP-ACP did not inhibit phosphoric acid etching of enamel. Poorly defined enamel etch patterns were observed with the other conditioners in all the groups. The morphology of the bonded resin-enamel interfaces observed on FE-SEM for each acid etching/conditioning subgroup was similar in all the experimental groups, except after bleaching. Resin infiltration into enamel was observed with prior phosphoric acid etching and polyacrylic acid conditioning and was unaffected by experimental group treatments. Conclusions: The use of a CPP-ACP paste with or without prior bleaching did not inhibit enamel etching. Enamel etching/conditioning may help improve bonding efficiency of the self-etching primer adhesive after CPP-ACP treatment. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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