The fluorescence quenching of quantum dots by hemoglobin has been demonstrated to depend on surface functionalization, and this property has been utilized to construct a novel fluorescent method for rapid, sensitive, and selective detection of trace hemoglobin in urine at microgram level. This method shows low interference and high selectivity for hemoglobin with a limit of detection of 4.3 μg L(-1) in water and 66.1 μg L(-1) in urine, which are lower than those of currently used methods in labs and clinics. Spike and recovery tests in raw, acidified, and alkalized urine samples exhibit good recovery rates for the spiked concentrations close to the limit of detection.
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