The serum hemolytic activity of Babesia gibsoni-infected dogs varied when assayed with nonself red blood cells from different dogs, whereas it did not vary when assayed with red blood cells, irrespective of self or nonself, from a particular dog throughout the experiment. The variety in activity determined with nonself red blood cells was not related to the type of red blood cell by DEA, D and J systems. Serum hemolytic activity with self red blood cells was different in the course of infection from that with nonself red blood cells, especially in the late stage of infection, when the activity with self red blood cells decreased more rapidly than that with nonself red blood cells. The results indicate that the serum hemolytic activity of B. gibsoni-infected dogs determined with self red blood cells probably reflects the in vivo activity, suggesting that the rapid decrease in activity in the late stage of infection is a way of acquired resistances for the host to recover from hemolytic anemia in the infection. The facts that the hemolytic activity increased by heating the serum at 56 degrees C, that the osmotic fragility of red blood cells remained almost on the same during the course of infection and that Coombs' test for red blood cells of the infected animal was negative suggest that the immune-mediated hemolytic anemia is not a possible mechanism for the progressive and severe anemia in B. gibsoni-infection. The present results support the previous notion that the increased serum hemolytic activity is at least one of the causes of anemia in canine B. gibsoni-infection.
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